Dear reader, the purpose of this document is to provide you with an understanding of the first layer of CSE Platform.
This document is intended for developers, third-party developers, auditors, and collaborative consultants implementing the CSE platform.
Blockchain’s era is extremely fast and cheap
CSE Platform 3.0
CSE has applied the science to solve the issues: Open chain networks, Block lattice structures, Cloud nodes, Micro-Mode, Hyperthreading; Stratification; Multi-layered Security for super-speed and super-cheap purposes.
Masternodes are nodes running the same wallet software on the same blockchain to provide extra services to the network.
These services include:
For providing such services, masternodes are also paid a certain portion of reward for each block. This can serve as a passive income to the masternode owners minus their running cost.
The additional benefits of masternodes can lead to less number of users conducting Proof of Stake (PoS) mining activities and thus lowering the security of the PoS network.
Masternodes provide a valuable service and should be rewarded for that service, but main aim is not to reward the extra value which they provide. For we believe that doing so disproportionately benefits masternode owners and beyond other users of the system and ultimately leads to a greater degree of centralization.
The reward portion is further split dynamically via the Seesaw Reward Balance System between masternodes and staking nodes.
The logic is simple in its roots. The higher the masternode count, the smaller the reward portion of each PoS block that will be paid out to the masternodes and the larger the reward portion for staking nodes. Conversely, when the masternode count falls, the masternode reward portion is increased and the staking node reward portion decreased.
The PoS block reward starts with a ratio of 9 to 1 towards masternodes when the amount of coins locked to masternodes is lower than 1% of the total coin supply.
When the number of coins locked to masternodes go above 41.5% of the total supply, the block reward amount will shift with more than 50% of the block reward going to staking nodes. This has the effect of making it less attractive to provision more masternodes as it has the potential to significantly lower its profitability compared to staking that has less upkeep cost.
This threshold was selected as it would allow a strong network of profitable masternodes while creating incentive for approx. 60% of the total coin supply to be available for staking to secure the network and to maintain liquidity.
Another intended benefit and goal of the Seesaw Reward Balance System is to ensure that it is more profitable for users running masternodes than it would be to stake the qual number of coins, under the normal circumstances of being below the equilibrium threshold. The reason behind this is due to the extra cost, risk and time associated with maintaining the masternodes are greater than staking alone.
Intel has announced the delivery of 17 qubit superconductor chips for quantum computers to QuTech, Intel’s Quantum Research Partner in the Netherlands. New chips are made by Intel and have unique designs to achieve improved productivity and performance. Quantum computing, in essence, is paramount in parallel computing,
with the ability to solve problems that ordinary computers can not handle.
In addition to applications that promote research in chemistry, materials science, and molecular modeling, quantum
computers can participate in advanced algorithms that speed up decoding of power consumption. This reduces the cost and makes Blockchain widely available in a wide range of industries.
Very sensitive Qubits: Any noise or unwanted observations of them can cause data loss;
This sensitivity requires them to operate at about 20 millikelvin – 250 times colder than deep space. This extreme perating environment makes the encapsulation of the qubit key efficient and functional;
Superconducting is a very rare and very expensive material;
Possesses Infinite Power, but Quantum Computer fiddles with concentration when participating in BlockChain decoding. To solve this problem, the developer has to use the supercomputer virtualization approach to millions of nodes.
Smart Contract 2.0
Technology is changing almost every aspect of our lives. It is therefore no surprise that it has already had a profound effect on how legal contracts are made (and signed), for example, we now negotiate via e-mail, VC and Skype and sign electronically without ever meeting face to face.
Technology is also revolutionising other broader issues of electronic contracting, including identification of parties, and is forcing us to rethink the very fundamental ideals of what it means to conclude and perform under a contract.
Smart contracts have been around for some time. Think of the humble vending machine. The advent of distributed ledger/blockchain technology, such as Ethereum, now brings us to a new era. “Smart Contract 2.0”.
Smart contracts will fundamentally change the way in which we contract. It will bring significant benefits and will transform certain sectors and industries. It will likely bring with it disintermediation and decentralisation. It will also require a new approach to lawyering to navigate and address the complex issues. Smart Contract 2.0 will need the “smart lawyer”.
Smart Contract’s logic is: if the technology can automate and self-enforce performance, we should be able to do away with the need for legal contracts, and law in general. “Smart contract” will be one which serves the purpose of a valid and binding agreement coupled with technological auto-performance, without further human intervention.
Some of benefits of smart contracts operated on blockchain technology include:
1. Improved efficiencies;
3. Reduced cost;
4. Risk reduction;
5. Guaranteed performance.
Smart contracts raise multiple legal and commercial issues, including issues of:
Smart Contract 2.0
Blockchain speed and Scalability
The speed of transactions on the most popular public blockchains does has an impact on startups. Indeed, transaction speed is at the center of concerns about the scalability of blockchains like Bitcoin and Ethereum.
In Bitcoin, each block is a maximum of 1 MB and will always take about 10 minutes to be mined, as specified in the Bitcoin white paper. The expected block time in Ethereum is much quicker, 10-19 seconds. That’s mainly because its block sizes are much smaller – currently around 20-30kb.
Regardless of their differences, block mining in both Bitcoin and Ethereum is a stable mechanism and doesn’t typically deviate from the expected times.
Blockchain speed and Scalability
Bitcoin transaction speeds
On average Bitcoin processes about 7 transactions per second, which makes it pretty slow compared to Ethereum and Ripple (the fastest major cryptocurrency, at 1,500 per second). Visa does 24,000 transactions per second.
Why the variance? It comes down to two main factors:
1. The amount of network activity;
2. Transaction fees.
Normally you can expect to pay a fee of around $3. But when the network gets very busy, the fees go up. This happened in December, during the bull run. Media reported an average transaction fee of $50 during this period.
This volatility in transaction time makes it difficult for Bitcoin to be used as a payment mechanism.
However, Bitcoin’s developer community has come up with two solutions to this problem:
Ethereum transaction speeds
The Ethereum blockchain can only do roughly 15 transactions per second. But while block time is fairly consistent, when there are a lot of transactions to process it can ead to long queues.
In December of 2017, the CryptoKities craze reached a peak and clogged up the Ethereum network, the queues were 20,000 – 25,000 transactions. Even now Etherscan shows an average queue of around 15,000 – 20,000 transactions.
Ethereum hopes to handle the problem of transaction queues with different solutions:
Like Bitcoin’s developers, Ethereum is also exploring off-chain solutions. One is called Raiden, which is Ethereum’s version of Bitcoin’s Lightning Network. Another off-chain solution being developed is Plasma, which uses “a series of smart contracts to create hierarchical trees of sidechains”.
‘Sharding’ draws from a traditional scaling technique called ‘database sharding’, which effectively breaks a database into pieces and puts each part on a different server.
Speed solution of CSE
Speed solution of CSE
✓ Lighting Network
CSE still inherits the Lighting Network technology, allowing off-chain processing systems in many cases.
✓ Hyperthreading Technology
Lessons learned from Bitcoin and Ethereum, CSE utilizes hyperthreading technologies, making the super-fast processing unprecedented. This planning is like the waiting line and the door system at the airport. If the number of transactions increases dramatically, the system automatically opens more channels and opens more doors to ensure the maximum number of transactions per thread. Maximum queue at CSE is 100 transactions.
✓ Quantum Supernode and Masternode
Quantum Supernode is involved in microprocessors in each transaction. MasterNode: Professional support services, similar to aviation support services:
• Goods support;
• Support for the elderly and people with disabilities;
• Shuttle service in and out of the airport.
CSE’s Masternode also has a special service that handles large contracts such as the lease of private airplan,…